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Origin, Development and Necessity of Society

Society: An introduction
Society is an organized group working together, living together and sharing common properties, interests, and beliefs. The people share traditions, cultures, laws, institution, and values in a society.

Origin of the Society
Human beings are the most intelligent and creature of nature. Initially, human beings were similar to other creatures. The present human society is a developed and a complex society but human society in the very beginning was simple and unorganized. The early people in the primitive age lived in the forest with other animals. Their life was very difficult.
The evolution of society has been a dynamic process. Looking across an expanded span of human existence, the famous anthropologists - E.B Taylor and LH Morgan have presented three major stages of human society and they are Savagery age, Barbarism, and civilized stage. Let's study these three stages of human society.

Savagery Stage or Stone Age

Stone Age
Stone Age

This is the most preliminary stage of human society which started around 2.5million years ago. The major features of this age are:

  • Humans used to live like animals in forest and caves.
  • Humans used to hurt animals using an arrow.
  • They used to collect leaves and roots of plants as well as wild cereal grains in a natural environment for food and livelihood.
  • The invention of fire, the use of arrow and pottery were the major achievements of this stage.
  • Animal skins were used as a cloth to cover themselves.
  • Stone, bone, and teeth were used to make tools and weapons.

Barbarism (Middle Age)

Barbarism
Barbarism

The term "Barbarism" refers to a state of being uncivilized. However, it is an improved stage of human society in comparison to the savagery stage. the main features of Barbarism stage are:

  • Humans used to live in permanent settlements.
  • They developed animal husbandry and farming.
  • They developed language, art, and kinship.
  • They believed in divine power and death ritual.
  • Use of pottery and iron weapons.

Civilized Stage (Modern Age)

Modern Age
Modern Age

This is the most developed stage of human society. The present society is the example of a civilized society. The main features of the civilized stage are:

  • Highly developed society and culture.
  • Establishment of urban settlements.
  • Development of language, literature, music, and art.
  • Development of industry, trade and modern agriculture system.
  • Scientific invention and development of information technology.

Exercise

Answer the following questions.

  1. What is society?
  2. What are the three stages of human society? Describe them with their features.
  3. What benefits can we get from the society?
  4. Write any four differences between savagery and Barbarism age.

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