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# Human Resource Development

Human Resources
It indicates both general and technical manpower needed for carrying out any work.

Manpower
Person or group of people having specific knowledge and skills; including general labors to highly skilled technicians i.e. farmer, doctor, businessperson, lawyer, teacher, nurse, engineer, pilot etc.

### Types of Manpower

On the Basis of Skills

• Skilled Manpower $\Rightarrow$ They have complete knowledge and skills. E.g. doctor, pilot, engineer etc.
• Semi-skilled Manpower $\Rightarrow$they have some skills but not like expert. For e.g. assistant police for election.
• Unskilled Manpower $\Rightarrow$They do not have any specific skills but can contribute for developmental work. For e.g. general labors.

On the Basis of Term

• Short Term Human Resource $\Rightarrow$Manpower prepared for specific work and particular time duration. For eg. manpower prepared for caring chickens/ harvesting paddy etc.
• Long term Human Resources $\Rightarrow$Manpower prepared for specific work and for long period service. E.g., police, army, civil servants etc.
• Constant Human Resources $\Rightarrow$ Manpower who once attains skills and knowledge and can contribute throughout their life time. E.g. teacher, doctor etc.

In a Glance:

Difference between Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development

 Human Resource Management Human Resource Development It manages the knowledge and skills of person at different level in organization It intends to provide knowledge and skill, trainings to improve the efficiency of employees. It is related to the improvement of skills of manpower. It focuses on only the development of individuals and their ability. It develops and improves the performances of people at different level in the organization. It generates skills and knowledge and provides trainings to workers in an organization. It is related to the improvement of organization. It focuses on development of both individual and organization and makes employees more responsible.

Need of Human Resource Development
Human resources are the basis for the overall development of nation. Manpower with various skills at different level is required for economic, social, cultural and prosperity.
The following point echoes the needs: -

• To demand and appoint man powers in terms of plan.
• To manage required manpower and to fill the lack while necessary.
• To increase or decrease available manpower by analyzing the need.
• To tap skilled and expert employee for various works avail in the nation.
• To insert variety in work and indicate the condition of manpower in the market needed for various work.
• To raise productivity of an organization by managing available man powers in proper way.

Importance of Human Resource Development
Human Resource is indispensable to bring positive change in any organization. The importance of HRD can be lighten in points.

• It assists to utilize manpower effectively.
• It helps to prepare manpower for future, too and figure-out incentive plan.
• It helps out on leadership, supervision and efficient communication in the organization.
• It helps to expand relation between human resources in an organization and concerned stakeholders.
• It helps to bring positive changes in the quality of work and in internal management.

Procedure of Human Resource Development

Challenges of Human Resource Development in Nepal

• Lack or less employment opportunity
• Highly qualified and technical manpower luring for foreign employment.
• Lack of competent manpower
• Improper manage between produced manpower and demand
• Lack of coordination between skill development training centers
• Fail to prepare manpower needed for national and international level
• Lack of utilizing various kinds of available resources
• Lack of taking benefits from active population of the nation
• Lack of insight to develop activity for rural zone, women, marginalized people etc.
• Failure to match demand with adequate supply

Solutions for Human Resource Development in the context of Nepal

• Employment opportunity should be generated in the country.
• Qualified and skilled manpower should be given priority and security as per their level of skills.
• Develop skilled manpower to compete in national and international level.
• Balance between demand of manpower and supply.
• Vocational and skill development training should be provided for self-employment.
• Effort should be given for optimum uses of natural resources.
• Prepare policies regarding HRD and implement it effectively.
• Leadership capability building program for youth should be conducted.
• Manpower from educational institute should be produced as per the opportunity of employment in the market.
• Special focus should be given to the people of remote areas, women, dalit and marginalized for skill development activities.