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- D'Alembert Principle
- Application of Lagrangian Equation
- Applications of Lagrange's Equations of Motion
- Lagrangian Equation for Particle Moving In
- Degrees of Freedom, Generalized Displacement, Generalized Velocity
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- Constraints and It's Type
- Introduction, Conservation Laws

**Mass Defect**The nucleus is formed by bringing protons and neutrons together. The mass of nucleus so formed is less than the sum of masses of constituent protons and neutrons. The mass difference is called

If Z is the number of protons in the nucleus(Atomic number Z), then the number of neutrons in the nucleus is (A - Z) (A is atomic mass). If m

Sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons

= Zm

Mass defect Δm = Zm

∴ Mass defect Δm = 2.1060 - 2.0136 = 0.0024 a.m.u.

The deviation of atomic mass fro whole number value is express in the form of a quantity known as packing fraction. Packing fraction defined as the ratio of the difference between the atomic mass of the atom M and its mass number A, i.e. (M - A) to its mass number A.

Therefore, packing fraction f= \(\frac{M-A}{A}\)

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