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History and Development of Microbiology

Classification and Nomenclature of Micro-organisms

Scope and Applications of Microbiology

Morphology of Bacteria

Isolation, Enumeration and Culture of Bacteria

Metabolism

Microbial Genetics

Microscopy and Different Techniques of Handling of Microorganisms

Techniques in Control of Microorganisms

Host Parasite Interaction and Immunology

Introduction to Virology

Introduction to Parasitology

Introduction to Mycology

Growth and Physiology of Bacteria

History of Microbiology

Microbiology began with the discovery of microscope that enabled to visualize too small microscopic organisms which are not visible to our naked eyes.Before the discovery of microscopes, some of the postulations regarding existence of microorganisms had been raised,some of them are given below:

  • Roger Bacon(1220-1292)postulated that disease is produced by invisible living creatures.
  • Similar postulation was raised by Girolamo Fracastaro(1483-1553) and Anton Von Plenciz (1762 AD)
  • Athanasius Kircher early 1858 first referred worms to visible organisms found on decaying bodies and secretion.
  • Robert Hooke in 1665 first observed onion cell in enlarged form.
Discovery of Microscope

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek(1632-1723) was the Dutch student of natural history.he used grand glass for making the lens,fortunately he discovered a magnifying the lens which we now call a microscope.During his lifetime, he constructed more than 250 microscopes with the maximum magnification of 200-300 times.Then he was the first person to see the microorganism present in the rainwater.He made a drawing of his observation and reported all those things to British Society.Most of his drawings were similar to protozoans which were identified later. the experiment established the fact that the origin of the maggots was the flies and not the meat.

Important Discoveries in Microbiology

Year

Name of Scientist

Discoveries

1590-1608

Jansen

Discovered first useful compound microscope

1676

Leevwenhoek

Discovered animalcules.

1786

Muller

produced the first classification of bacteria.

1798

Jenner

Introduced cowpox vaccine for small pox

1838-1839

Schwann and Schieldin

Introduced cell theory

1835-1844

Basis

discovered that silkworm disease is caused by a fungus and purposed that many diseases are microbial origin

1847-1850

Semmel Weis

Showed that child bed fever is transmitted by physicians. and introduced the use of anti septics to prevent such disease.

1849

Snow

studied that epidemiology of cholera epidemic in London

1857

Pasteur

Showed thatlactic acid fermentation is due to microorganisms

1858

Virchow

stated that all cells come from cells

1861

pasteur

showed that microorganisms do not arise spontaneously

1867

listet

published his work on ant septic surgery

1869

Meisners

discovered nucleic acid

1876-1877

Koch

Demonstrated that anthrax was caused by Bacillus anthrax

1880

Larveran

Discoverd plasmodium the cause of malaria.

1881

Koch
Pasteur

cultured bacteria in gelatin
developed anthrax vaccine.

1887

Koch

discovered M.tuberculosis

1884

Koch
Metchnikoff
Autosave
Gram

Published his first postulate.
first described phagocytosis
developed stain
developed stain

1885

Paasteur
Escherich

developed rabies vaccine

identified Escherichia coli, a cause of diarrhoea

1886

Fraenkel

Discovered Streptococcus pneumonia, a cause of pneumonia

1887-1890

wlnogradsky

studied sulphur and nitrifying bacteria,father of soil microbiology.

1889

beijerinak

isolated root nodule bacteria

1890

Von Behring

prepared antitoxin

1892

Ivanosky

provided evidence for viral causation of tobacco mosaic disease

1894

Kitason and Yersin

discovered years inpasties, a cause of plague

1895

Bordef

developed complement protein

1896

Van Ermengen

discovered clostridium botulinum, a cause of botulism.

1899

Beijeriak

Proved that virus particle came to tobacco mosaic disease.

1902

Landsteiner

Discoverdd blood group

1905

Sachdin and Hoffman

discovered Treponema pallidumcause of syphilis

1909

Rickets

showed that rocky mountainspotted fever is transmitted by tick bite and caused by Rickets rickettsial

19011

Rovs

discovered a virus that causes cancer in chickens

1915-1917

Herelle and Twort

discovered bacteriophage virus

1928

Griffith

discovered bacterial transformation

1929

Flemming

discoverd penicillin

1933

Rusca

developed first electron microscope

1937

Chatton

divided living organism into prokaryotes and eukaryotes

1944

Avery

showed that DNA carries information during transformation

1949

Ender welled and Robins

Grew polio virus in human tissue culture

1950

Lwoff

Introduced lysogenic bacteriophage

1952

hershey and Chase

showed bacteriophage inject DNA to host cell

1953

Watson and Crick

purposed double helix structure of DNA

1959

jallow

developed radioimmunoassay

1962

Porter

proposed basic structure for immunoglobin

1982-1983

Cech and Altman

discovered catalytic RNA

198-1984

Gallow and Montagnied

isolated and identified HIV in America

1984

Mulis

discovered polymerase chain reaction

1883-1884

Klebs and Hoeffler

Discovered diphtheria bacillus.

1904

Poul Ehrlich

discovered chemotherapeutic agent active against Trypanosomes.

Reference

C.H.Collins. (1995). Microbiological Methods. Oxford Univ Press.

D.Greemwood, R. S. (2002). Medical Microbiology. London: Churchill Livingstone.

M.J.Pelezar. (1993). Microbiology. Tata McGraw hill.

M.T.Madigan, J. a. (1997). Biology of microorganisms. London: Prentice hall International Inc.

R.N.Atlas. (1984). Fundamentals and Applications. NewYork: MacMiHiam Publishing Co.


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