Definition of Management
Management manages organizations by coordinating resources to get the jobs done through people. The collected resources can be human, financial, physical and informational. Management operates in a changing environment with the motto of achieving goals with efficient and effective work. The meaning of management has been changing with time.
Simply, we can understand that management is the way to getting jobs done through and with people using the processes of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling to achieve certain goals in a dynamic environment.
Characteristics of Management
To have a proper management, various qualities that a management needs to have should be noted down. Quality means a characteristic behavior , either good or bad that influences the standard of management. The main characteristics of management are :
1. Management achieves goals
Goals are the end results to be achieved. Goals can be multiple in the form of profit, survival, growth, service, market share, leadership ,etc. These goals are achieved if and only if there is a good management system in an organization.
-Profit: It is excess income over expenditure.
- Survival and growth : Organization needs to stay alive for survival and growth.
- Service : Providing proper service to customers and employees is necessary.
-Market share and leadership: Should have high market share value and leading the organization through innovations.
2. Management gets the jobs done
There are various jobs needed to be performed in an organization. Without management, whole jobs would be on chaos because greater confusion is created by assigning the particular task to a particular employee. Therefore, management coordinates human and then helps to control the financial and informational resources to get the jobs done.
3. Management attains efficiency and effectiveness
The efficiency and effectiveness while doing a job are necessary for goal formation. Management helps the job been done efficiently and effectively without creating errors . Management uses resources wisely to minimize costs. Efficiency is getting things right whereas effectiveness is doing the right thing.
4. Management works with and through people
Management focuses on people and manages them according to jobs assigned to them. It is a process where working with and through people helps to get the jobs done. It emphasizes teamwork. It directs and coordinates the efforts of people. Jobs are done by the collective action of people.
5. Management is a process
agement is done with various processes such as planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling to attain certain goals. They are also known as functions of management which represent the process of management. These functions are dependent on the situation of the organization but they are universally functioned.
6. Management has environment
Management needs a dynamic environment to operate where it adapts to the certain changes . The forces in the environment are political-legal, economic, socio-cultural, technological, etc. These forces include various components within them. The management should have an optimal balance between jobs and people.
Principles of Management
Principles are generalizations which guide management practice. The principles should be applicable to all types of organizations. Some of the principles of management are :
1. Division of work
The work should be divided and grouped functionally into departments. An employee should be assigned only one type of work to increase output. Therefore, various departments are created to perform their assigned jobs . Departments can of production, finance, human resource, marketing or information technology.
2. Authority and responsibility
Authority is legitimate power to give order whereas responsibility means an obligation to perform work. This principle states that those who have authority must be responsible towards the job. These two criteria should flow together. The managers should follow the provided orders and make their subordinates perform accordingly.
3. Unity of command
This principle states that one employee should have only one boss. Multiple bosses create confusion and conflicts and the pace of doing a job is slowed down. Having multiple bosses divides attention, and loyalty.
4. Unity of direction
There should be one head and one plan for a group of activities having the same objective. This results in better use of resources and effective communication among employees. For example, all financial activities should be under the control of one financial head.
5. Scalar chain of command ( Hierarchy)
Management should have a scalar chain of command . All employees should be linked with each other in superior-subordinate relationships. Orders and communication should pass through the scalar chain.
6. Span of management
There should be a limited number of subordinates that a manager can handle. This is explained by the organizational chart . This principle is also known as span of control.
7. Superiority of organizing interests
This principle states that interest of an organization should be prioritized than the interests of an individual to prevent the goal conflict. Here, personal goals should not conflict with organizational goals.
Discipline is essential for proper functioning of an organization. Discipline requires good superiors and employees at all levels of the organization. Discipline is the attitude created by leaders which are followed by their subordinates.
9. Human resource management
The proper management of the human resource is demanded. Working environment should be made peaceful to encourage employees to work excellence. Right man should be assigned to do the right jobs and fair and equitable remuneration should be given to employees.
10. Management by exception
This principle states that management should pay attention only to exceptional cases. There should be selectivity in work to avoid petty decisions which require delegation of authority to subordinates. The normal functions should be followed for routine work.
11. Supportive relationships
The managers and subordinates should have supportive relationships with one another. They should respect the decisions made and provide social, psychological and moral support when needed. The contributions should be made to their sense of personality and dignity.
Agrawal, D. G. (2013).Principles of Management in Nepal.kathmandu: M.K. Publishers and Distributors.
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