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Research Proposal

Reviewing of Literature and Note Taking

Research Report


Proposal Writing and Its Sequential Component

Proposal writing
Before carrying out a research the tentative layout of the research intended has to be presented. This layout is called proposal. The proposal must be okayed by the concerned authorities if it is to be carried out under certain organisation.
A research proposal is a brief documentary statement of the following.
  1. The research problem.
  2. Rationalisation of the proposed study based on reviews.
  3. Intended nature of research.
  4. The proposed methodology for information collection.
  5. Statistical methods proposed for data analysis and inference drawing.
  6. Budget and time for completion of the research work.
  7. Description of manpower intended to be used.
The component usually converts in proposal writing are
  1. Background information or introduction.
  2. Objectives or statement of the problem.
  3. Coverage or scope of the investigation.
  4. Definition of key variables.
  5. Sample design.
  6. A= Sample size.
  7. B=Stages of sampling.
  8. C=Types of sampling to be used in each stage.
  9. The manpower for each resource personnel to be used in the study according to the man months.
  10. Time schedule for each activity from start to end of the research.
  11. Cost estimation.
  12. Salaries or honorarium to resource persons.
  13. Salaries to administrative staff.
  14. Salaries to field staff/ Enumerators/ Supervisors.
  15. Transportation cost.
  16. Communication cost.
  17. Documentation and printing.
  18. Overhead cost.

A standard proposal has following sequential components

  1. The title of the research works.
  2. Work plan.
  3. Manpower.
  4. Work plan.
  5. . Manpower.

1. The title of the research work

It should be such that it reflects the main theme of the research. It should be brief not exceeding more than usually 15 words and be specific.

2. Introduction
In this methods, it contains the brief discussion of the background for proposing the research by highlighting the findings and quotation made in previous similar studies for the relevance of the proposed research and formulation of research problems or objective or hypothesis.

3. Methodology
In this component brief description of the nature of the research coverage of the study sample size and stages of sampling specification of sampling units etc. If the study is to be based on sample observation and research design proposed are to be stated.

4. Work plan
In this component tentative (experimental) durations of different activities for research are described. The descriptions are presented as work schedules by time period for preliminary work reviews developing information, Collection format, testing the suitability of the format developed; finalising the format, development of sampling plan. A collection of information editing of the information collected, information processing and analysis, draft report preparation, discussion on the draft. Finalisation of the report and dissemination of the report.

5. Manpower
In this component description of manpower to be used for research work by man-months of utilisation and area of activities . The description is to be presented by categories such as technical persons, including consultants and their area of specialisation administrative staff and field workers including supervisions.The total budget required to the study should be spelt out in the main text. However, components wise allocation may be given in the annexes. The allocation of the budget has to be presented according to the following format.

a. Consultant fee
Honorarium to be principle investigator at the rate RS….. per months or per man months. Honorarium for the consultants or co-researcher at the rate of R.S per months or per man months for each of them.

b. Administration costs
Salaries for administrator assistant administrators accountant peons etc by per months.

Field cost

  1. Allowance for consultants during their field visits their allowances.
  2. Allowance for consultants during their visits their allowances.
  3. The cost for travelling to study site.

Stationery and Documentation cost
Equipment cost
If the study requires special equipment to be purchased. The cost of equipment day to be paid the instalment cast and the running cost.
If the study has to be conducted by renting some offices the cost for rent payment.
If some furniture have to be purchased and the offices have to be decorated the cost for furniture and decorations.
Miscellaneous cost
In this methods, they include usually 5 to 10% of the total of above cost.


Kerlinger, F.N. Foundation of Behavioural Research. New Delhi: Surjeet Publication, 2000.
Kothari, C.R. Research Methodology. India: Vishwa Prakashan, 1990.
Singh, M.L. and J.M Singh. Understanding Research Methodology. 1998.
Singh, Mrigendra Lal. Understanding Research Methodology. Nepal: National Book centre, 2013.






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