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Basic Source of Knowledge

The basic source of Knowledge
Human beings are always inquisitive to understand causes and consequences of happening or not happening of something or event or phenomenon and to predict their occurrence and extent in failure. The answer to interrogative queries like what, when, how, who, whom, and how much are some of the understanding that generated knowledge among human beings. Some of the understanding come in a natural way while other come through the complex procedure of investigation.There are four methods of knowing or understandings.
  1. Tenacity
  2. Authority
  3. Scientific method.
  4. Institution, Prior method/ Rational Approach.

Tenacity
In this methods, people know something to be true simply because a lot of people believe it to be true. The more it is so, the more valid the truth becomes.
Authority
In this methods, if a well-respected person or an authoritative source says that something is so, then it must be so.
Institution, Prior method/ Rational Approach
This method is based on the notion that people will reach the truth because their nature inclination will be to do so. It is based on the notion that intuitive proposition should agree with reason and not necessarily with experiences. It might thus be termed as Rational Approach.Believing a fact in the background of socio-economical and cultural aspect is the main.
Scientific method
This is the most important and latest method understanding or knowing.In this methods, truths are not ascertained by beliefs but by something upon which thinkings have no effects.The method deals with real things whose characterised are entirely independently of our opinions about them.The ultimate conclusion of every man shall be same.
This is the most important and latest method understanding or knowing.In this methods, truths are not ascertained by beliefs but by something upon which thinkings have no effects.The method deals with real things whose characterised are entirely independently of our opinions about them.The ultimate conclusion of every man shall be same. Self-correction and objectivity are two main characteristics of this method that distinguished it from other methods. Personal beliefs, perceptions, biases, values, attitudes, and emotional have no place in this methods.
Main characteristics of the Scientific method.

  1. Verifiability
  2. Generality
  3. Predictability
  4. Objectivity
  5. System

1. Verifiability

The conclusion drawn through a scientific method is subjected to verification at any time. The proposition is that the phenomenon under investigation must be capable of being observed and measured. For instance, a man’s order of preference of various jobs although incapable of being observed can still be verified by means of an interview.

2. Generality
Laws derived through scientific method are universal in their application. They are not limited to individual objects or individual groups of objects. The relationship discovered through these individual groups should be applicable to the whole group called a universe.But , because of heterogeneous nature of the social phenomenon, complete, universality is rarely achieved in social sciences and the fact observed or laws formulated in social sciences are valid only under given a condition.
The results through scientific method can be predicted with sufficient accuracy. For example, one can say with certainty that if water is heated to 100oC, it will vaporise and if it is cooled to 0oC, it will turn to ice. Predictability is fixed on two factors,e fixing of relationships between the causes and the effect and the stability of causative factors.
Predictability depends on one hand upon the nature of the phenomenon and the other hand upon the knowledge of various causative factors. However, people do not acknowledge predictivity in the social phenomenon as a part of scientific method.

4. Objectivity
The results obtained through a scientific method should be free from investigator’s own views. The main criterion of objectivity is that all people should arrive at the same conclusion about something of the phenomenon.For example, When we say that coal is black, it is the objective statement because coal will appear black to all people but when we say coal is useful mineral, the statement may not be objective for everyone may not agree with the statement.Objectivity is essential for verification. It permits repetition of observations under practically identical observation by many observers.The expected answer to research series are the objectives of the study.If the problem has been stated in negative sentences, then their counter statements I,e positive sentences are the objectives of the study. For example, if the problem is stated as: is A deteriorating? Then the research objectivity may be stated as Whether A will be improved.The convergent point of the objective statement is the goal of the study.In scientific studies, the objectivity is stated as-

  1. Broad objective.
  2. Specific objective

1. Broad objective

The broad objective is the broad perspective of the study.

2. Specific objective
Specific objectives are stated to specific the specific observation to be made in the study.They are stated in number preferably in sequential order.

5. System
In every scientific study, there is an accepted mode of investigation. The results arrived by means of a haphazard method, even true, cannot be called scientific because it accuracy is purely accidental.

Scientific studies
Scientific studies have passed the different stage of evolution and the methods of scientific analysis have been made more and more refined with the growth of scientific studies.

Aspects of the Scientific method

Every Scientific method of investigation is composed of two aspects.

  1. Technical
  2. Logical Aspects

 

1. Technical Aspects

This aspect deals with the collection of information (data and manipulates of a phenomenon to allow an objectivity observation.

2. Logical aspects
This method comes at the time of generalisation of drawing of inference on the basis of collection information.Technical methods are different in different sciences and there are hardly a few persons who have mastered the technical methods of more than one science or a group or connected science.In general, a method of investigation applied to a particular branch of knowledge consist of following two basic aspects.

  1. The general part or the basis rules of investigation which is common to all types of scientific investigations.
  2. The applied to part or technical part that permits to the particular science alone.

In the second part of the investigation, that needed specialised knowledge.The accepted mode of investigation is called system or formally and rigorous of the investigation.




Reference

Kerlinger, F.N. Foundation of Behavioural Research. New Delhi: Surjeet Publication, 2000.
Kothari, C.R. Research Methodology. India: Vishwa Prakashan, 1990.
Singh, M.L. and J.M Singh. Understanding Research Methodology. 1998.
Singh, Mrigendra Lal. Understanding Research Methodology. Nepal: National Book centre, 2013.

 

 

 


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