The term "software" was first proposed by Alan Turing and used in this sense by John W. Tukey in 1957. Computer software, or simply software, is that part of a computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.
Software crisis is a term used in the early days of computing science for the difficulty of writing useful and efficient computer programs in the required time. The term "software crisis" was coined by some attendees at the first NATO Software Engineering Conference in 1968 at Garmisch, Germany.
The causes of the software crisis are