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Introduction to Object Oriented Programming

C++ Language Constructs

Objects and Classes

Operator Overloading


Polymorphism and Dynamic Binding

Exception Handling

Introduction to C++

Object Oriented Programming using C++ is a programming language which was first designed in 1994 and was based on simple ASCII Codes. OOP consists of a network of objects and methods. The main emphasis of OOP is on data rather than procedure&programs are divided into what are known as objects. Objects of the programme interact by sending the message to each other. Data structures are designed such that they characterize the object and the functions that operate on the data of an object are tied together in a data structure. New data and functions can be easily added when necessary.
Example: java, C++, oracle.

fig:-object communicating with each other
Object Communicating with each other

Steps in Designing OOPs

  1. Understanding the problem
  2. Draw the specification requirements of the user
  3. Identifying their objects and their attributes
  4. Identifying the services and behaviours.
  5. Collaborations between objects in terms of service

Benefits and Applications of OOPs

  1. Through inheritance, we can eliminate code redundant.
  2. We ca build programme modules than can be used in later time.
  3. Data hiding helps the programmer to build a secure programme.
  4. It is easy to map out various objects to solve the real world problem.
  5. The program can be easily updated from small to large.
  6. The memory management under C++ would be easier and more transparent.


  1. User interface design (windows and outlooks).
  2. It can be used in real business applications because it supports inheritance and polymorphism.
  3. It is an object-oriented database thus, it supports neutral network and parallel programming.
  4. It supports decision support and office automation system (CAD system).

Procedural Oriented Programming(POP)
Procedure means function oriented programming and follows top to down approach. It is also known as Procedural Programming Language(PPL). It is just a collection of procedure list to complete a task. It is a collection of procedure list to complete a task and it consists of at least one procedure i.e main(). There is not any type of protection and encapsulation inheritance and polymorphism is also not available. Procedural programming is dividing the programming into various procedures. To design program long we should create function first the call it inside the main procedure. It is a traditional type of programming so new data cannot be added easily. Examples: FORTRAN, COBOL, Basic, c.

Abstract Mechanism
The abstraction is the mechanism of getting detailed information according to the level of deep sight to the problem. Through the abstraction mechanism, the program hides all but the relevant data about an object in order to reduce complexity and increase efficiency. In the same way, abstract works in art, the object that remains is a representation of the original, with unwanted detail omitted. The resulting object can itself be referred to as abstraction meaning a named entity made of selected attributes and behaviours specific to similar a particular usage of the similar entity. Abstraction is both related to encapsulation and data hiding.

Computation as Simulation
There are two types of model:-

  • Traditional Model
    In a traditional view, a computer is a data manager computer is a data manager, following some pattern of instructions ,wandering through memories pulling values of various memories, transforming them in some manner and publishing the result back into the memory. By examining the values in the slots , we can determine the state of the machine or the result produced by the computation. This model may be more or less accurate picture of what takes place inside the computer.
  • Object Oriented Model
    There are never mentioned memory addresses or variables or assignments or any other conventional programming terms. Instead, we spoke of specific objects, responsibilities, messages for some action. This model is a process of creating a host of helpers that forms a community and assists the programmes in solving their problem. This view of programming as creating a universe is in many ways similar to a style of computer simulation called “discrete event – driven simulation”. In this type of simulation, the user creates computer models of the various elements of the simulation, describes how they will interact with one another, and sets them moving. OOP is similar to event management simulation.

Coping(dealing) with complexity
At an early stage of programming language, all programmes are written in assembly language by the single individual. As programs became more and more complex it became hard for programmers to remember all the information to develop and debug the software. As the program became more and more complex as the best programmer could not perform the task by himself and there were a group of programmers solving the complexity.

The Non Behaviour Of Complexity
As programming projects became larger, an interesting phenomenon was observed. A task that would take 2 months for one programmer could not be solved by 2 programmers taking 1 month. The reason for this nonlinear behavior was complexity, in particular, the interconnection between the software components were a difficult and large amount of communications had to be communicated among the various programme of the programming team.


#Things To Remember