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History and Development of lnternets and lntranets

Internet
Simply, a collection of interconnected networks is termed internetworking or in short Internet. It is a worldwide collection of millions of computers and networks. Internet can be best defined as a global system of interconnected computer networks that uses standardized communication protocols (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. No one actually owns or runs the Internet. The Internet is also often referred to as the Net.

Applications of Internet

  • Traditional Core Applications
    • Email
    • File Transfer
    • Remote Login
    • News
  • The Killer Application
    • World-Wide Web (WWW)
  • New Applications
    • P2P applications
    • Video conferencing
    • Internet Broadcast
    • Telephony

History of Internet
DARPA began as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) created in 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower for the purpose of research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science and able to reach far beyond the immediate military requirements. It was in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1 in 1957, and ARPA's mission was to ensure that the U.S. military technology be more sophisticated than that of the nation's potential enemies. DARPA’s original mission, established in 1958, was to prevent technological surprise like the launch of Sputnik, which had signaled that the Soviets had beaten the U.S. into space. The mission statement has evolved over time. ARPA was renamed to "DARPA" (for Defense) in March 1972, then renamed "ARPA" in February 1993, and then renamed "DARPA" again in March 1996.

Internet History Timeline

  • 1961-1972: Early packet-switching principles were developed
  • 1961: Kleinrock's queueing theory shows the effectiveness of packet-switching
  • 1964: Baran - packet-switching in military nets
  • 1967: ARPAnet was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency
  • 1969: First ARPAnet node operational
  • 1972:
    • Net public demonstration
    • NCP (Network Control Protocol), first host to host protocol
    • First e-mail program
    • ARPAnet has 15 nodes
  • 1972-1980: Internetworking, new and proprietary nets
  • 1970: ALOHA net satellite network in Hawaii
  • 1974: Cerf and Kahn - architecture for interconnecting networks
  • 1976: Ethernet at Xerox PARC
  • Late 70’s: Switching fixed length packets (ATM precursor)
  • Late 70’s: Proprietary architectures: DECnet, SNA, XNA
  • 1979: ARPAnet has 200 nodes
  • 1982: Smtp e-mail protocol defined
  • 1983: DNS defined for name to IP-address translation
  • 1983: Deployment of TCP/IP
  • 1985: FTP protocol defined
  • 1988: TCP congestion control
    • New national networks: Csnet, BITnet, NSFnet, Minitel
    • 100,000 hosts connected to confederation of networks
  • 1990, 2000’s: Commercialization of the Web and new apps were developed.
  • Early 1990’s: ARPAnet decommissioned
  • 1991: NSF lifts restrictions on commercial use of NSFnet (decommissioned, 1995)
  • Early 1990s: Web
    • Hypertext [Bush 1945, Nelson 1960’s]
    • HTML, HTTP: Berners-Lee
  • 1994: Mosaic, later Netscape
  • Late 1990’s – 2000’s:
    • More killer apps: instant messaging, P2P file sharing
    • Network security to forefront
    • Est. 50 million host, 100 million+ users
    • Backbone links running at Gbps
  • 2007:
    • ~500 million hosts
    • P2P applications: BitTorrent (file sharing) Skype (VoIP), PPLive (video)
    • More applications: YouTube, gaming
    • Wireless, mobility
    • Voice, Video over IP

Intranet
Intranet is an internal, private network using Web technologies to securely transmit information within the organization. An intranet uses TCP/IP, HTTP, and other Internet protocols and in general looks like a private version of the Internet. With the help of tunneling, companies can send private messages through the public network, using the public network with special encryption/decryption and other security measures to connect one part of their intranet to another. Intranet provides improved information access to authorized user and delivers accurate information.
An intranet can be understood as a private analog of the Internet, or as a private extension of the Internet confined to an organization. The private internal network offers security and protection in the form of the firewalls as well as password-protected access and secure servers. Intranets are sometimes contrasted to extranets. While intranets are generally restricted to employees of the organization, extranets may also be accessed by customers, suppliers, or other approved parties. Extranets extend a private network onto the Internet with special provisions for authentication, authorization and accounting.

Fig. Application of Intranet
Application of Intranet

Internet Number
Internet number is a numerical identifier that is assigned to an Internet resource or used in the networking protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. Example includes IP Addresses and Autonomous System (AS) numbers. Globally, Internet numbers are managed by the IANA.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocols for communication.
Within the Internet, Autonomous System (AS) numbers is a collection of connected Internet Protocol (IP) routing prefixes under the control of one or more network operators. A group of networks and routers controlled by single administrative authority is called an autonomous system (AS)
A unique ASN is allocated to each AS. ASN are important because the ASN uniquely identifies each network on the Internet.

IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority)
IANA is the entity that is responsible for global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and numbers. IANA is a department operated by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, also known as ICANN.
IANA maintains and allocates unique codes and numbering systems used in the technical standards (“protocols”) and allows computers and other devices to talk to each other over the Internet. The unique codes and number is the key to ensure that the Internet retains its interoperability.

Following are some of the tasks associated with IANA;

  1. IANA administers the data in root name servers, which forms the top of the hierarchical DNS tree. This involves liaising with top-level domain (TLD) operators, the root nameserver operators, and ICANN's policy making apparatus.
  2. IANA administers many parameters of internet engineering task force (IETF) protocols. Examples include the names of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) schemes and encoding of characters recommended for use on the Internet

The various activities of IANA can be grouped into three categories:

  • Number Resources
  • Domain Names
  • Protocol Assignments

Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A RIR is an organization that manages the allocation and registration of Internet number resources within particular regions of the world. Internet number resources include IP addresses and AS (Autonomous System) number. RIR’s are nonprofit corporations that administer and register Internet Protocol (IP) address space and AS (Autonomous System) numbers within a defined region.

The RIR system evolved over time, eventually dividing the world into five RIRs:

  1. Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC)
  2. African Network Information Centre (AfriNIC)
  3. American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)
  4. Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre (LACNIC)
  5. Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)

National Internet Registry (NIR)
A NIR is an organization under the umbrella of a RIR with the task of coordinating IP address allocations and other Internet resource management functions at a national level within a country or economic unit. NIR’s primarily operate in the Asia Pacific region, under the authority of APNIC, the Regional Internet Registry for that region.

Some NIRs that are currently operating in the APNIC region:

  • APJII (Asosiasi Penyelenggara Jasa Internet Indonesia), Indonesian ISP Association
  • JPNIC, Japan Network Information Center
  • SGNIC, Singapore Network Information Centre
  • KRNIC, National Internet Development Agency of Korea
  • CNNIC, China Internet Network Information Center

LIR (Local Internet registry)
A LIR is an organization that has been allocated a block of IP addresses by a regional Internet registry, and that assigns most parts of this block to its own customers. Most LIRs are Internet service providers (ISP), enterprises, or academic institutions Membership in an RIR is required to become an LIR.

Internet service provider (ISP)
ISP is an organization that provides access to the Internet. Users are assigned IP addresses by ISP’s. ISPs obtain allocations of IP addresses from a National Internet Registry (NIR) or local Internet registry (LIR) or from their appropriate Regional Internet Registry (RIR).

It must have Web Site Infrastructure:

  • Redundant “Fault-Tolerant” Servers
  • Redundant Communications Lines
  • One or More Firewalls
  • Standby Electric Power

Procedure for being an ISP:

  • Procure a leased communications line to one of the company’s routers
  • Contract with a regional network providers with bandwidth
  • Procure hardware and software to manage Internet communication
  • Maintain enough manpower for managing ISP traffic and deal with users
  • Set up dial-in lines to connect users

Refrences:

  • Mlnoli, Daniel. Internet and Intranet Engineering. Computing Mcgraw-Hill, 1997.
  • “Computer - Internet and Intranet.” Tutorialspoint.com. Computer fundamentals. 3 September 2016.
  • Rouse, Margaret. “IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority).” whatis.techtarget.com. IT standards and organizations. 10 September 2005. 3 September 2016

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