Sanitary engineering is the application of engineering strategies to boost sanitation of human communities, primarily by providing the removal and disposal of solid and liquid waste produced in the community in an efficient manner.
Definitions of Common Terms
- Industrial Waste
It's the wastewater generated from the economic, industrial and commercial areas. This waste contains objectionable organic and inorganic compounds which will not be amenable to standard treatment processes.
- Night Soil
It indicates the human and animal waste matter.
- Sanitary Sewage
Waste/Sewage originated from the residential buildings comes below this class. This is often terribly foul in nature. It’s the waste generated from the bathroom basins, urinals and water closets of residential buildings, office block, theater and alternative establishments.
It is also called Waste Water. It indicates the liquid waste originating from the domestic uses of water such as sullage, discharge from toilets, urinals, waste generated from business institutions, establishments, industrial institutions and conjointly the groundwater and storm water which will enter into the sewers. Its decomposition produces massive quantities of musty gasses, and it contains various infective or unwellness manufacturing bacterium, at the side of high concentration of organic matter and suspended solids.
It's an underground passage or drain through that waste is carried to a degree of discharge or disposal.
- Separate Sewer
Sewers that carry the household and industrial wastes only.
- Storm Water Sewer
Sewers that carry rainwater from the roofs and street surfaces.
- Mix/Combine Sewers
Sewers that carry each waste and storm water along within the same passage or conduit.
- House Sewer (or Drain)
Sewers used to discharge the waste from a building to a street sewer.
- Lateral Sewer
Sewer that collects waste directly from the home buildings.
- Branch Sewer or Sub Main Sewer
Sewer that receives waste from a comparatively tiny space.
- Main Sewer or Trunk Sewer
Sewer that receives waste from several tributary branches and sewers, serving as an outlet for an out sized territory.
- Depressed Sewer
A section of sewer created below adjacent sections to pass to a lower place an obstacle or obstruction. It runs full below the force of gravity and at larger than air pressure. The waste enters and leaves the depressed sewer at air pressure.
- Intercepting Sewer
A sewer set transversally to the main installation to intercept the dry weather flow of waste and extra surface and storm water as is also fascinating. An intercepting sewer is typically an outsized sewer, flowing parallel to a natural drain channel, into that variety of main or outlet sewers discharge.
- Outlet Sewer
It receives entire waste from the gathering system and eventually it's discharged to a standard purpose.
- Relief Sewer or Overflow Sewer
it is employed to hold the flow in way over the capability of an existing sewer.
The term sewerage refers the infrastructure which incorporates device, instrumentation and appurtenances for the gathering, transportation and pumping of waste, however excluding works for the treatment of waste. Essentially it's a water carriage system designed and created by assembling and carrying off waste through sewers.
- Storm Water
It indicates the rain water of the community.
- Subsoil Water
Groundwater that enters into the sewers through leakages is named dirt water.
- Waste Water
The term waste includes each organic and inorganic constituent, insoluble or suspended type, and mineral content of liquid waste carried through liquid media. Usually, the organic portion of the waste undergoes biological decomposition and also the mineral matter might mix with water to create dissolved solids.
This refers to the waste generated from bogs, kitchens, laundry place and wash basins, etc. The composition of this waste doesn't involve the higher concentration of organic matter and it's less contaminated water as compared to waste. It is the domestic dirty water not combined with excreta.
Importance of Waste water and Solid Waste Management
Urbanization has encouraged the migration of people from villages to the urban areas. This has given rise to a number of environmental problems such as water supply with desirable quality and quantity, wastewater generation and its collection, treatment, and disposal. This wastewater from the locality makes the unfavorable condition for breathing and living of human but provides the favorable condition for breeding of mosquito, flies, and bacteria which spread diseases like cholera, dysentery, typhoid etc. Radioactive wastes are highly dangerous. Pathological wastes are potential disease carrying waste products. The wastewater and solid waste if allowed accumulation in the community, they decompose and produce the bad smell and contaminate the air, soil, and water. Open dump site can contaminate water sources, food supply and cause food borne disease. So to live a healthy life proper, scientific and efficient wastewater and solid waste management are necessary and important.
Effective Wastewater and solid waste management can achieve the following:
- To provide a decent sanitary condition of town protective public health.
- To dispose the human waste to a secure place by a secure and protecting means that.
- To get rid of all liquid waste generated from community to a correct place to stop a good condition for dipteran breeding, fly developing or bacterium growing.
- To treat the waste product, as per wants, therefore as to not endanger the body of water or groundwater or land to induce contaminated wherever it's finally disposed of. Thus, it protects the receiving surroundings from degradation or contamination.