What is Engineering ? Academic Press dictionary of Science and Technology has defined Engineering as “Engineering is the application of scientific knowledge about matter and energy for practical human uses such as construction, machinery, products or systems.” Engineering is the application of scientific knowledge to solving problems in the real world.
Man and Society
Man Man is a social animal. He has a natural behaviour to live an associated life with others. The Man forms the society for his existence or survival. The human child depends on his parents and others for its survival and growth. The inherent capacities of the child can develop only in society. However, in the course of time, the tradition, culture and the guidelines of the society controls human beings. The ultimate ambition of society is to promote good and happy life for its individuals. For the all round development of individual personality, it creates conditions and opportunities. If society helps the individuals in abutment ways, great men also contribute to society by their wisdom and experience. Thus, society and individuals are interrelated by an intimate and harmonious bond and the conflicts between the two are credible and momentary. In a well-ordered society, there would be lasting harmony between the two.
Society The term “society” means relationships social beings, men, express their nature by creating and re-creating an organization which guides and controls their behavior in myriad ways. A Society is the collection of individual united by certain relation or mode of behaviour. The term society refers not to the group of people but to the complex pattern of norms of interaction that arises among them. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions. Finally, we will say that the word “society” may confer with Associate in Nursing organized the voluntary association of individuals for spiritual, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic or different functions. Society is universal and pervasive and has no defined boundary or alienable limits. A society is a collection of people united by bound relations or modes of behavior that mark them faraway from others WHO don't enter into those relations or WHO take issue from them in behavior. In this way, we will conclude that society is the whole complex of social behavior and also the network of social relationship
Defination of Society Definition of Society keeps changing since society is dynamic. “Society is the largest form of human group, which consists of people who share the common heritage and culture.” -Richard T. Schaefer and Robert P. Lamm “Society is a complicated network of social relationships by which every human being is interconnected with his fellowmen.”- P. Gisbert A settlement with the following criteria is called a society.
Population A society has population. It can be small or big.
Common Territory The people of a society occupy a common territory.
Government or Political Authority The people of a society have a common government and political authority.
Common culture and a sense of relationship/membership and committed to the group.
Essential Elements of a Society
People and Plurality Society consists of people, of both sexes, of different physical features (age, skin color, eye color, hair color, height, weight, face type)
Likeness and Differences Members of a society are alike in many aspects. This “alikeness” bonds them, and they seek understanding and cooperation from each other. The members of a society are different in many ways too, like culture (language, religion, art, music, dance, food, dress, values, belief system), profession, interest, opinion, views etc.
Cooperation and Interdependence Members of a society cooperate with each other, and they depend on each other. When the level of mutual cooperation reduces, society tends to disintegrate.
Stable and Dynamic Society is relatively stable; the norms, values and culture are normally stable/. Yet, society is dynamic. Some elements of a society change slowly, and some change rapidly, depending on external and internal factors.
Characteristics Features of Society
Society Consists of People Every Society is composed of People. There is no existence of society without people.
Mutual Interaction and Awareness An individual is a member of a society so long as he/she engages in the relationship with other members of society.
Likeness and Difference in Society Likeness refers to similarities. People have similarities with regards to their needs, works, aims, ideal, values and so on. People differ from one another in their ability, potentiality, attitude etc. However, difference alone cannot create society. It subordinates to likeness.
Interdependence Social relationships are characterized by interdependence. One depends upon the other for the satisfaction of one’s needs.
Co-operation and Division of Labour Co-operation with each other in a society leads to a happy life. Without co-operation society cannot exist. Likeness and differences among the society members create the division of labour.
Society is Dynamic Society is dynamic so society keeps changing.
Society is Abstract Society is the web of social relationships created in the process of interaction among the people. Therefore, Society can be felt and realized but not seen.
Social Control Customs, traditions, law, police, court etc are means of social control through which society controls the behaviour of its members.
Culture Every society is unique because it has its own way of culture which includes attitudes, judgements, morals, ideas etc.
Technology and Society Technology is the accumulation of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the assembly of products or services or within the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the information on techniques, processes, etc. or it can be anchored in machines, computers, devices, and factories, which will be operated by people while not elaborated information of the workings of such things. The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to management fireplace and therefore the later Neolithic Revolution enlarged the obtainable sources of food and therefore the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and management their surroundings. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, accept lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a world scale. The steady progress of military technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power, from clubs to nuclear weapons. Technology has abounding effects. It has helped advance added avant-garde economies (including today's apple economy) and has accustomed the access of a leisure category. Abounding abstruse processes accomplish exceptionable by-products, accepted as pollution, and bankrupt accustomed resources, to the damage of Earth's surroundings. Various implementations of technology access the ethics of an association and new technology usually raise new moral queries. Examples cover the acceleration of the angle of authority in agreement of animal productivity, an appellation originally activated alone to machines, and the claiming of acceptable norms.
Bibliography Adhikari, E. R. (2010). Engineering Professional Practice-Nepalese and International Perspectives. Kathmandu: Pashupati Publishing House. Morrison, H. C. (1982). Professional Engineering Practice- Ethical Aspects. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson ltd. Nepal Engineering Council Act