Management means managing man tactfully. All the work done by a manager to control activities in the organization is management. Management is the set of activities like planning, organizing, directing, controlling and communicating to achieve organizational goal. Management manages human resources. When human resources are managed, other resources gets managed automatically. Management tries to maintain a balance between men, money, machine, material and method toward fulfilling the objective.
Characteristics / Essence of management
Function of management
- Goal oriented
Every organization is established with specific objectives. Management helps to make the proper use of human and other resources for achieving predetermined objective. The objective of management is to make higher production with the optimum use of human resources.
- Universal activity
Wherever there are human we need management to manage resources and activities. Every organization across the globe need management. The approach of management may differ from place to place and time to time, but management is applied everywhere. The management of Kist College may be different from management of Nepal bank, but management is applied in both organization.
- Social process
Management utilizes physical and human resources to achieve organizational goal. Management tries to get their work done through people. While conducting any work management also fulfill the social objective by fulfilling the needs of the employee. This makes management a part of the social process.
- Dynamic activity
The working environment may not be same all time. The management system of today may not be effective tomorrow. Management system needs to be changed according to the time and situation. Management has to be dynamic and flexible with the changing environment. Management has to modify its style according to time and situation.
- Group activity
A single person does not require any management. Management requires a group of people to perform a various managerial function to achieve a common goal. Management defines respective authority and responsibility of a managerial position to obtain a predefined goal. Management involves the group of people.
- Distinct process
Management involves a set of interrelated functions. Management takes the proper procedure to achieve the predetermined goal. Management specifies the task to be done by every employee and defines the process of completing work. Management completes its predefined objective in defined interval of time.
- Both science and art
The management system is based on the certain principle that is accepted all over the world. Management uses the statistic, facts and theories to conduct its daily activity. Management is a systematic work, so it can be termed as science. To perform any managerial task we need special skill and ability. Management conducts daily task in a different way according to time and situation. This makes management as art.
- A profession
Management has different kind of function to be performed which require people with special knowledge and skill. Every organization requires management to perform their task effectively and achieve organizational goal. This makes management a profession.
- Multidisciplinary in nature
Management has to look after different types of work. Management principle is based on a certain principle which is integrated from many other philosophies like psychology, sociology, economics, and mathematics. Also, management uses a different technique based on different principle. So management is multidisciplinary in nature.
Managerial Hierarchy/ Level of Management
Planning is predetermination of objective and future course of action to be taken to achieve defined goals effectively and efficiently. Planning is a mental exercise and requires skills intelligence and vision. Planning is required to eliminate and solve the problem that may arise during daily operation. It minimizes future uncertainty and risk. Planning include:
- Setting organizational objective
- Formulation of policy and procedure
- Preparing work schedules and budget
Organizing is the process of grouping similar nature task in the manageable unit to achieve organizational goal. Organizing is concerned with developing structure and framework and allocating required resources. Organizing is the base of enterprises where all the mechanism involved to obtain organizational goal are clarified. Organizing involves:
- Identifying major activities
- Grouping them into manageable unit
- Assigning job to different department
- Delegating authority to fulfill given responsibility
Directing means the process of encouraging the employee with instruction and guidelines to work effectively and efficiently to achieve organizational goal. Directions help to make the better working environment in the organization. Directing brings uniformity and smoothness in the organization. Directing involves:
Staffing is the process of determining manpower, recruitment, selection, appointment and placement of right employee to the right job. Staffing helps in the mobilization of resources to achieve the common goal. Staffing is the continuous process that determines the size of manpower at the different level to complete different types of work. Staffing includes:
- Determination of manpower required
- Recruitment selection and appointment of right person
- Training, seminar and workshop to develop employee skills
- Performance evaluation, promotion and transfer of employee
Controlling is the process of comparing actual performance achieved with that of planned performance and taking remedial actions if any deviation in actual deviation. Control brings uniformity in all action. The good control system is required to achieve organizational goal according to the plan. Controlling includes:
- Setting standards
- Measuring actual performance
- Identity deviation if there are any between planned and actual performance
- Analyze the cause of deviation
- Take remedial action to achieve predetermined goals.
The division of an organization into the different department on the basis of nature of functions and appointment of manager of the different level to maintain a unity of command is a managerial hierarchy. Managerial hierarchy used these days are:
- Top Level Management
This is the highest level of management in any organization. Top level management is responsible for achieving the overall objective of the organization. This level of management prepares a long-term plan, policy, vision, mission, and strategy. Top level management includes boards of director, C.E.O, chairman, general managers etc. The functions of top level management are:
- To define overall objectives of the organization
- To prepare strategic plan and policy
- To direct, coordinate and lead all subordinate
- To represent the organization to outside the world
- Middle-level management
Middle-level management is the bridge between the top level and middle-level management. This level helps to make communication between top level and lower level management. Lower level management communicates with top level through middle-level management and vice versa. This level is the backbone of an organization. This level consists of functional heads of a different department like human resource, finance, production, marketing, etc. The functions of middle level manager are:
- To play role of mediator between top level and lower level management
- To implement plan and policy prepared by top level management
- To divide work among subordinate and maintain coordination
- To delegate authority and responsibility to lower level management
- Lower level management
This is the first line management which is directly involved in the implementation of plan and policy. This level of management is responsible for completion of works in time to achieve planned objective. This level includes supervisor, foremen, senior officer, and operational heads. This level management is responsible for maintaining the better working environment. The functions of lower level management are:
- To prepare day to day plan and implement plans prepared by middle-level management
- To assign responsibilities and duty to employee
- To provide necessary instructions and guidance to subordinates
- To operate and create better-working environment
Dr.S Poudyal, Santosh Raj. Principles of management. Bhotahity,Kathmandu.: Asmita book Publishers & Distribution (P)Ltd., 2011