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Introduction to Database and Database Management System

Entity-Relationship Model

Structured Query Language

Relational Database Design

Case Study

Introduction to Database and Database Management System

Introduction
Databases are one of the most important and the useful tools available to the management and the information technology. Databases provide the foundation for collecting, organizing and sharing data across an organization. Virtually every area of the management uses a database management system. For example, marketing professional uses the database to analyze sales data, human resources managers uses to evaluate the employee, operation managers to track and improve the quality, accountants to integrate the data across the firm and financial analysts to analyze a company performance. The data base management approach provides several significant advantages over traditional programming techniques. A primary advantage includes the shorter development times, easier modification better data integrity and security and improved data sharing and integration. However, a DBMS is one of the most complex technology tools available .databases has to be carefully designed to gain these advantages. A large scale commercial DBMS provides the thousands of the options and costs hundreds of the dollars. It can take the several months to learn all the features of the database management system.
Although databases are often created and maintained by information technology professionals, increasingly management professionals in other disciplines are designing and creating their own database application.
A modern data base system is one of the most powerful tools you can use to build business application; it provides the many features that represent significant advantages over traditional programming methods. Yet database systems are complex. To gain the advantages, data must be carefully organized. To retrieve data and build application, we need to learn and uses the powerful query languages. Once we understood, the concept of the database designs, queries and the database application building, we will be able to create complex application in a fraction of the time it would take with the traditional programming techniques.
A database is the collection of data stored in standardized format, designed to be shared by the multiple users. A database management system is a software that defines a database, stores the data , supports a query languages , produces the report and creates the data entry screens.
Some of the most challenging problems in building applications arise in storing and retrieving the data. Problems include the conserving the space, retrieving the data rapidly, sharing the data with the multiple users at the same time and providing the backup and recovery of the data. Initially the programmers have to solve these problems for every application they created. Today, DMBS have already provides the solution for these problems.

Purposes of the database system.
  • It provides the ability to share the data with the many users at the same time.
  • It provides the data security, concurrency and integrity features.
  • This approach separates the data from the programs. This independence makes it possible to expand the data bases without crashing the program.
  • It helps to store at retrieve the data and the data dictionary to help to locate the data.
  • Benefits of the DMBS are tangible and can be measured with a degree of the accuracy.
Database and the application development
Database systems have become the foundation of all application development projects. From large enterprises relationship systems , to e – business websites, to stand alone business applications, database systems stores and retrieve data efficiently, provides security and makes it easier to build the application. Today, when we build and modify the application we will first create the database. To understand the capabilities of the database and to create the application, it is best to examine the process used to create the application.
Organizations typically follows basic step outlined in the figure. When creating the technology application, larger projects may require several people in each phase, while smaller project might be created entirely by one or two developers. Organization can rearrange the task that falls within the each step, but all of the task must be completed for a project to be successful.
System development particularly for the large projects, it is useful to divide the application development into the several steps. They can be used to track the progress of the development team and highlight the steps remaining.
  • feasibility
    The feasibility process steps defines project and provides the estimates of the costs.
  • Analysis
    During the analysis phases system analysts collect the data definitions, forms and reports from the users. These are used to design the databases and all of the new forms, report from user.
  • Design
    It is most critical process. Database systems and the associated development tools are incredibly powerful, but databases must be carefully designed to take advantages of the power. Designing the database and the tables is key step in creating the database application. Forms are defined that transfer data into database and reports uses , queries to retrieve and display the data needed by the users.
  • Development
    During the development stages, the forms, reports and the application feature helps the file to create.
  • Implementation
    Implementation usually consists of transfer of the data, installation, training and review.

 References: Korth. n.d.KORTH. Database system concept. Bombay: McGraw-Hill International edition, 2002.


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