Humans are the most important resources of every organization. No organization can exist and grow without them. Thus, people are that resources of the organization through which all activities are done to achieve the organizational objectives. So the process of managing the human resources of an organization is known as Human Resource Management. The Human Resource Management can be defined as the range of strategic processes and activities by combining the needs of organization and individual. It is the overall process of employing and managing people who work in the organization. Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organization together so that the goals of each are met. It is the part of the management process which is with the management of human resources in an organization. Hence, Human Resource Management is concerned with the people's dimension in the organization.
Various scholars have given their views regarding the term ‘Human Resource Management’ differently. To have a comprehensive idea of the term, the following definitions may be noted:
- David A. Decenzo and S.P Robbins \(\Rightarrow\) HRM is the process consisting of the acquisition, development, utilization, and maintenance of human resource.
- Barry Cushway \(\Rightarrow\) HRM can be defined as a range of strategic processes and activities designed to support corporate objectives by integrating the needs of all organization and the individuals that comprise it.
- Wendell French \(\Rightarrow\) HRM is the systematic planning, development, and control of the network in interrelated processes affecting and involving all members of the organization.
Thus, human resource management is the effective management of people at work. It examines what can or should be done to make working people more productive and satisfied. In other words, human resource management is the function performed in organizations that facilitate the most effective use of people (employees) to achieve the organizational and individual objective.
Characteristics of Human Resource Management
Human resource management has many characteristics some of them are as follows:
- Action Oriented
HRM focuses on action, rather than on file keeping, written system or rules. It gives emphasis on the employment trouble to achieve organizational goals and facilitate employment development in a dynamic atmosphere.
- Human Focus
It focuses on managing all kinds of people, including top-level employees and middle as well as lower level employees. HRM is people-centered. It is concerned with human aspects.It develops and utilizes human potential into productive sector.Mainly it develops and utilizes human potential.
- Management Function
HRM is a part of management.It involves managerial functions such as implementing, planning, controlling acquisition, utilization, development, and maintenance of human resources.
- Continuous Process
Human Resource Management is a continuous function. It is not a ‘one-shot’ function. It must be performed continuously if the organizational goals are to be achieved smoothly. It is concerned with present as well as future. Hence, Human Resource Management is of continuous nature. It requires a constant readiness and awareness of human relations and their importance in every organization.
- Dynamic in Nature
Human Resource Management is a dynamic function whereby the procedures and practices are influenced by the environmental factors. It adapts to the changing environmental factors such as political, legal, economic, socio-cultural and technological forces. Human Resource Management adjusts the human resources in the organization as per change in environmental factors.
HRM integrates individual and organizational goals into a framework. It promotes correlation between employer and employees.It provides various motivational approaches to make the people happy and satisfied inside and outside the organization.
- An Art and a Science
Human resource management is both the art and science of managing people by recourse to creative and innovative approaches; it is a science as well because of the precision and rigorous application of the theory that is required.
- Pervasive Function
Human Resource Management is a pervasive function of management. All level of management performs it. There is no discrimination made between any levels or categories.Those who are managers have to perform Human Resource Management. It is pervasive also because it is required in every department of the organization. All kinds of organizations, profit or non-profit making, have to follow Human Resource Management.
Objectives of Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management is concerned with managing human capital in an organization in the best possible manner. The main purpose of HRM is to accomplish the organizational goal. Therefore, the resources are mobilized to achieve such goals.Its primary objective is to ensure the availability of a competent and willing workforce to the organization. Beyond this, there are other objectives too. Some importance objectives of Human Resource Management are as follows:
- Goals Achievement
Human Resource Management helps the organization to meet its goals through proper utilization of the human resource. HRM has a different kind of goals such as personal goals, HRM goals, organizational goals, social goals. Human Resource Management assists employees in achieving their personal goals such as compensation, development, placement and career advancement. Human Resource Management assists the organization to be ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society. It helps the organization to achieve many kinds of societal goals such as the creation of employment opportunities, a solution of social problems and protection of the environment.
- Goal Harmony
Human Resource Management bridges the gap between employee’s individual goals and organizational goals thereby resulting in a goal harmony. It satisfies employee’s personal needs and maintaining their high morale resulting from job satisfaction and commitment. If goal difference occurs, the employees will not be willing to perform well. Hence, a proper match between the individual goal and organizational goal should be there in order to utilize organizational resources effectively and efficiently.
- Organizational Structure
HRM helps to maintain organizational structure by fulfilling vacancies at right time. It ensures right number and kind of people, at the right place and at the right time. In this way, HRM aims to maintain organization. The Human Resource Management system provides required information timely and accurately. Hence, Human Resource Management helps to maintain the organizational structure.
- Increase in Efficiency
The main purpose of HRM is to increase efficiency through cost-effective utilization of human resources. HRM aims to avoid waste and increases efficiency.
- Employee Satisfaction
Human Resource Management provides a series of facilities and opportunities to employees for their career development. This leads to job satisfaction and commitment. When the employees are provided with every kind of facilities and opportunities, they will be satisfied with their work performance.
- Quality of Work Life
QWL refers to the quality of the relationship between employees and the total working environment of the organization. Quality of work life concentrates on creating a working environment that is conducive to the satisfaction of employees need. The high quality of work life ensures the motivation and willingness of employees towards the work. Various scholars have given their views regarding the term Quality of work life
— “QWL is a process of work organizations which enable its members at all levels to actively participate in shaping the organization's environment, methods, and outcomes. This value-based process is aimed towards meeting the twin goals of the enhanced effectiveness of organizations and improved quality of life at work for employees.”
— The American Society for Training and Development
— “The overriding purpose of QWL is to change the climate at work so that the human-technological-organizational interface leads to a better quality of work life.” - Luthans
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