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Particle Nature of Matter  

Anything that occupies space and has mass and is felt by sense is called matter. It is the form of five basic elements.
"The Panch Tatva": Air, Earth, Fire, Sky and Water.

Characteristics of Particles of Matter

  • Made of tiny particles.
  • Vacant spaces exist in particles.
  • Particles are in continuous motion.
  • Pericles is held together by attraction forces.

States of Matter
Classification based on:

  • Particle arrangement
  • Energy of particles
  • Distance between particles

There are five states of matter:


Difference in Properties of Solid, Liquid and Gas




Fixed shape and definite volume.

Not fixed shape but fixed volume.

Neither fixed shape nor fixed volume.



Highly compressible.

High density.

Density lower than solid.

Least density.

Diffusion not occurs.

Diffusion occurs.

Diffusion occurs.

Strongest attractive forces between the particles.

Attractive forces are weaker than solids.

Very weak attractive forces between the particles.

Particles are closely packed.

Particles are less closely packed.

Particles are free to move.


Plasma and Bose – Einstein Condensate

  • Plasma
    It is an ionized gas, which is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields as they are composed of ions. They have indefinite shape and indefinite volume. Eg: Ionized gas.
  • BEC
    It is a state of matter that can arise at very low temperatures. Its molecules are very close to each other (even closer than atoms in solids). It shows super fluidity.

Conversion of States of Matter
Matter can change its states from one form to another. Inter conversion of states of matter occurs at different temperature and pressures.
Water has been known as life device and it can exist in all three states of matter.

  • Solid, as ice
  • Liquid, as water
  • Gas, as water vapors

Inter Conversion in the States of Water

The changing of solid directly into vapors on heating and vapors into solid on cooling. Eg: Ammonium chloride (NH4cl), camphor, iodine, etc. undergoes sublimation.

Fusion or melting
The conversion process of solid into liquid.

Melting Point
The temperature at which a sold melts to become a liquid at the atmospheric pressure is called its melting point.

Meting Point of Some Solids


Melting Point


0°C or 273.16 K

Sodium Chloride (Nacl)

801°C or 1074 K


1535°C or 1808 K


Effects of change of Pressure

  • Applying pressure and reducing temperature can liquefy gases. Eg: LPG called liquefaction.
  • Solid carbon dioxide (CO2) is stored under high pressure, as it gets converted directly into gaseous state on decrease of pressure 10 1 atm, without coming into liquid state.
    Solid CO2 is also known as dry ice.

Latent Heat
The quantity of heat absorbed or released by a substance undergoing a change of state at constant temperature and pressure.

Latent Heat of Fusion
It is the amount of thermal energy required to cause a liquid to freeze or a solid to melt.

It is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point.

Boiling Point
It is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equals to atmospheric pressure.

Boiling Point of Some Liquids


Boiling Point



Chloroform (CHCl3)


Sulphuric Acid



#Things To Remember