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**Evolution of Computers**Evolution of computers didn’t recognize suddenly. It took thousands of years to mature. The concept of evolution of computers came from the ancient people as they were using stones for counting and made scratches over the wall and tied knots in a rope to store their records and information. All these techniques were manual. So, the first achievement is abacus developed by Chinese which make the calculation easier.

**Abacus**

Before the birth of JESUS CHRIST, it was developed and introduced by the Chinese. This discovery is earlier known as beads-and-wires counting machines. It consists of two parts which are movable.**Napier’s ‘log’ and ‘bones’**

John Napier developed the concept of logarithm. He introduces the use of log and log transforms multiplication and additional problem too. It also invents the numbering of rods which are known as Napier’s bones.**Pascal’s adding machine**

A French mathematician, Blaise Pascal introduces a machine in 1642 made up of gears which were used for adding the numbers quickly. Machine was named as Adding machine and also known as Pascaline. It worked on clockwork mechanism principle.**Leibnitz calculator:**Gottfried Leibnitz a German mathematician. Constructed a better version of previous version. It is now capable of performing multiplication as well as division. It can also add repeated numbers.**Jacquard’s loom**

It is manufactured for the punched cards and used them in control looms in 1801. There is an automatic process for entire room.**Babbage’s difference and analytical engine**A mathematician processor named Charles Babbage developed a machine which is known as difference engine. It was capable of doing log. Tables at a high level of precision. In 1833, he started designing an analytical engine which was a real ancestor of the modern day computers. It was capable of performing all four arithmetic operations like addition, multiplication, division, and subtraction.**Hollerith’s machine**

Herman Hollerith was an American named who was able to fabricate the electromechanical punched card for input, output and instructions.**Mark-1**It was developed by Howard Aiken in U.S.A. An electromechanical computer named Mark-1 is developed for multiply two 10-digit numbers in 5 seconds.

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